That is a lot of “givens” for an “average” software engineer. In reality, the great software engineer solves problems in hours that the average engineer will never solve correctly. The great software engineer solves ordinary problems in one-third the time with one-fifth as much code and one-tenth as many bugs. The great software engineer’s code runs in O(n) while the average software engineer’s code runs in O(n^3) time. The great software engineer can adapt his solution while you wait, while the average software engineer complains about late changes to the spec and says it will take weeks to meet new requirements now. These are all real differences I have seen when a great engineer redoes the work of the average engineer.

Thế nào là Engineers giỏi. Đọc thảo luận của các bạn trên stackoverflow về câu nói của Bill Gates: Engineer xuất sắc giá trị gấp mười ngàn lần trung bình. Thấy có có một comment mà đọc thấy chuẩn quá:

Các kĩ sư xuất sắc giải quyết vấn đề theo giờ, còn các engineer trung bình không bao giờ giải quyết được chính xác.

Các engineer xuất sắc giải quyết vấn đề gốc trong 1/3 thời gian, 1/5 code và 1/10 số lượng bug so với Engineer trung bình.

Các Engineer xuất sắc viết code chạy với độ phức tạp O(n), còn các engineer trung bình viết code với độ phức tạp O(n^3).

Các Engineer xuất sắc có giải pháp hích ứng với các thay đổi, trong khi các engineer trung bình phàn nàn về các thay đổi bị đưa vào yêu cầu trễ, và đòi thêm hàng tuần để sửa đổi.


by benchmark task performance

source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 4.02 507,480 452 4.02 0% 1% 100% 0%
Java 12.16 927,212 929 37.28 73% 81% 75% 78%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 27.82 28,208 1297 27.81 1% 0% 1% 100%
Java 21.50 27,240 1489 21.52 1% 1% 100% 0%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 17.49 564,704 778 62.77 84% 84% 96% 97%
Java 5.89 89,504 796 23.08 98% 98% 98% 99%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 3.68 245,496 1088 3.93 4% 4% 98% 2%
Java 1.11 345,308 1661 2.44 33% 58% 54% 80%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 15.77 28,804 425 15.77 1% 0% 1% 100%
Java 4.29 31,428 950 16.56 97% 96% 98% 97%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 9.45 31,892 1745 9.46 1% 1% 1% 100%
Java 2.14 36,192 2457 5.68 71% 58% 62% 77%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 78.41 27,192 473 78.39 1% 1% 100% 1%
Java 17.74 30,048 1282 69.90 98% 98% 100% 99%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 50.22 927,540 440 51.07 6% 15% 77% 6%
Java 11.33 592,668 835 39.39 84% 92% 83% 91%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js 60.73 2,095,052 904 151.74 96% 84% 84% 83%
Java 8.02 467,004 1802 25.57 76% 98% 73% 74%
source secs mem gz cpu cpu load
Node.js Bad Output
Java 0.24 828 938 0.24 71% 38% 8% 4%
Node.js v7.6.0
Java java version “1.8.0_121”
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_121-b13)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.121-b13, mixed mode)

It then generates API Documents and Application Skeletons for you. Afterward, you can write code to implement the APIs’ functionality. Another similar tool is RAML.

I personally think that if you are using Ruby, you can just write a good README file about APIs, and done with it. It will be much faster and  cleaner, if you know what you are doing. However, if you run a project that build multiple services by different teams with different skill levels, things such as Swagger and RAML will help you to maintain a certain level of unification of different codebases. And those tools also help to keep the APIs in synch with API docs (Lazy developers will like this feature).

This article describes step-by-step  of using Swagger to define API functions, generate a Sinatra skeleton web-based app and write code to implement the app. The Sinatra skeleton generated by Swagger does not work out of the box, and the quality of Ruby code is terrible, so I have to do some modifications myself to make it work and be bearable.

The steps are:

  • Write YML file that contains API definitions.
  • Generate and download the Sinatra skeleton.
  • Modify the code to make it work.
  • Implement the APIs’ functionality.
  • View API documentation and test the functionality from Web browser.

I. Prerequisites

There are Swagger tools that you can download and use offline on your computer. To me, they are not attractive, so you can see about downloading and installing them here.

But to use online tools, you just need a web browser. I test the tools with Chrome and Opera on Mac OS X, and they work.


II. Write YML file that contains API definitions

Use your web browser to go to the Swagger YML Editor:

On the browser, you will see this screen if you come to Swagger Editor the first time:


Click on the button “Got it!”, you will come to a screen to edit the YML file that describe your APIs. In the editor on the left side, you will see the YML definition of the example app Uber API like this:
You can delete everything in the YML editor on the left, and write your own API definitions there. I already wrote the YML definitions for two APIs of Email Services in this YML file.

POST /verifications.json

When a user registers a new account on a site, developer can use this API to send verification email to user’s email address. User must click on the comeback_url to come back to the site to prove that his email is valid.


POST /invitations.json

When a user or an organization invites a user to participate a site, developer can use this API to send the invitee an invitation email. The invitee can click on the invitation email to come to the site.


Both API endpoints accept JSON parameter with this format:

“organization_name”: “Some Organization Name”,
“recipient”: ““,
“comeback_url”: “Some full URL, including protocol http/https”


For example:

“organization_name”: “Amazon”,
“recipient”: ““,
“comeback_url”: “

You can read details about YML and JSON specs for API definitions here: .

It is always easier, faster and cleaner to use YML to define APIs.


III. Generate and download the Sinatra skeleton

For now, you can copy this YML file written by me, and paste it into the YML editor on the left side of the screen on browser, you should see the screen like this:



After you copy/paste the YML file in the YML editor and verify on the right side to see the APIs verifications and invitations get defined correctly, you can download the Sinatra Server skeleton by clicking on the menu Generate Server, and select Sinatra.

A zip file called will be downloaded to your local machine. Extract the file, you will have a directory called sinatra-server. That is your Sinatra Server skeleton generated by Swagger. Feel free to change the directory name to any name you want.


 IV. Modify the code to make it work

The generated Sinatra skeleton has some troubles, so it does not show APIs or anything out-of-the-box as it supposes to do. Besides, the Ruby code quality generated by Swagger is terrible. So we need to do some modifications to make it work.

1) my_app.rb

Add require to include the files in ./api/, so the application will know about the API endpoints’ definitions.

2) lib/swaggering.rb

– Method self.add_route:

The line “accepted = case method” never works, because the method names in APIs are generated as UPPERCASE, while the accepted tests for the method names uses lowercase.

And the way the code is written to check for valid method names are super dumb. Please look at the modified file for a much better and cleaner implementation.


– Method self.to_api:

This method hardcodes base_path in api_listing to the one in @@configuation. It makes the API docs stop working if the application is deployed to any place other than “http://localhost:4567”.

Please look at the modified file for a much better and cleaner implementation.

3) Two files invitations_api.rb and verifications_api.rb

The two API endpoints are defined in these two files.

The API definitions, routes, resourcePaths and endpoints must be modified to reflect (to some degree) the correct APIs defined in the YML Editor (See the right side).
Please look at the modified files invitations_api.rb and  verifications_api.rb, at the parameters of MyApp.add_route.


After the 3 steps above, you should be able to fire up the server using the command rackup -p 4567

Then  you can use any REST client, for example Postman to test the APIs at:

POST http://localhost:4567/invitations.json

POST http://localhost:4567/varifications.json

In both cases, you should receive back a JSON:

{“message”: “yes, it worked”}

Now we can start to implement the functionality for the email APIs.


V. Implement the APIs’ functionality

I implement the Mail functionality using the gem ActionMailer.

Everything follows the Rails conventions: the mailers are in ./app/mailers/. The mails’ contents are in ./app/views/.

Take a look at the repository for implementation details.

You must configure the email sending configuration in the file ./config/initalizers/setup_email.rb to be able to send mail.

If you run the application on any OS that has postfix, you can configure the file ./config/initializers/setup_email.rb like this:

ActionMailer::Base.raise_delivery_errors = true
ActionMailer::Base.delivery_method = :sendmail
ActionMailer::Base.view_paths = File.join(‘./app’, ‘views’)


VI. View API documentation and test the functionality from Web browser

I add the directory public with modified Swagger UI to the application, and add two new routes in the file my_app.rb to support the API docs functionality. It allows users to view API docs, regardless where the application is deployed.

Once you finish all the modifications and APIs’ implementations, run the server with the command rackup -p 4567, then you can see the API docs by open this URL in browser:


Replace localhost:4567 with the real URL where you deploy the application. You should see something like this:


You can click on “Show/Hide” and “List Operations” to view details of each API endpoint.



You can try out the APIs by clicking on “Expand Operations“. Once you click on “Expand Operations“, you will see a screen similar to this:


You should be able to paste parameter similar to the following JSON in to the text box Value, and hit “Try it out!” to see the API endpoint run.

organization_name“: “My Awesome Organization”,
recipient“: ““,
comeback_url“: “”


For your convenient, I put the fully implemented application here:

Please read the README file about how to bring it up and running.
Happy swaggering!

It is great news that NASA has released an official software catalog 2017-2018 for various technical applications. Time to learn from BIG Brother.

  1. Business Systems and Project Management
  2. Data Servers Processing and Handling
  3. Materials and Processes
  4. System Testing
  5. Propulsion
  6. Electronics and Electrical Power
  7. Operations
  8. Structures and Mechanisms
  9. Environmental Science
  10. Design and Integration Tools
  11. Crew and Life Support
  12. Autonomous Systems
  13. Vehicle Management
  14. Data and Image Processing
  15. Aeronautics



Finance - Machine Learning

Finance – Machine Learning business ideas from the latest McKinsey report.





Machine learning

Machine learning


Author: collecting from

UML is a graphical notation specifically for drawing diagrams of an object-oriented system. A UML describes over a dozen different diagrams, but we’re only interested in a few of the most common, such as the classic class diagram.



Class Diagram

Class Diagram

When drawing diagrams, it’s common to see signs before the attributes or methods, most

– Minus signs in front of the attributes here. This is referred to as controlling visibility, and Minus means these should be private to the class, not directly accessible from other objects.

+ For example getName operation which will be public and marked with a Plus sign.



Identifying inheritance


Inheritates Abstract Class

Inheritates AbstractClass

easiest way of identifying an inheritance situation is with two words, “Is A”. Inheritance describes an “Is A” relationship.


Using aggregation and composition

Aggregation Composition

Aggregation Composition

it’s the unfilled diamond. So, for example, we might have a classroom object that will contain an array of student objects that might be important to diagram that relationship.

Document has a Page or has many pages. But if I were to delete the Document object all the associated Page objects should be deleted too. I would not expect then those page objects to be shared with any other part of the application. On the other hand in a plain aggregation situation as with the Classroom and Student relationship, if I deleted the Classroom object, perhaps the class got canceled, I would not expect all the Student objects to be destroyed, they may be used in different classrooms or just be able to live on their own.

And that’s the difference, Composition implies ownership, Aggregation does not. Now Aggregation is not usually worth showing on a diagram, but Composition often can be. If the lifetime of an object is dependent on another object existing that can be worth showing, even if we are just prompting the idea that when you’re defining the owning class, say here the Document class, you may need to write aconstructor and a destructor that would take care of creating and/or deleting the internal objects.


Using interfaces



Sequence Diagrams

Sequence Diagrams

Class Diagram

Class Diagram


Khi một class có sử dụng một instance của class B như một tham số đầu vào của method trong class A.

public class A {

    public void doSomething(B b) {}

Nhưng giả sử class A có một member với kiểu dữ liệu là class B thì lúc đó ta có mối quan hệ



public class A {

    private B _b;

    public void setB(B b) { _b = b; }

Với ví dụ trên ta có thể thấy mối quan hệ giữa A và B chỉ là Aggreation có nghĩa là nếu như A bị hủy thì chưa chắc B đã được hủy. Do vậy nếu như instance của B được khởi tạo trong A như ví dụ dưới đây ta có mối quan hệ là



public class A {

    private B _b = new B();


public class A {

    private B _b;

    public A() {
        _b = new B();
    } // default constructor

Còn mối quan hệ như Inheritance hay Realization thì sao? Đúng như tên gọi của nó, nếu class B kế thừa từ class A ta có mối quan hệ



public class A {


} // class A

public class B extends A {


} // class B

Mặt khác nếu class B implement từ A thì ta có mối quan hệ (Ví dụ ta hay thấy đó là implement một interface)



public interface A {


} // interface A

public class B implements A {


} // class B


In this article, we are going to explore the classic specification pattern and implement it in order to compose the LINQ queries, and also non-LINQ queries. This article will also help beginners in understanding the specification pattern and how to implement it in practice. Major benefits of the specification patterns include reusability, maintainability, loose coupling of business rules from the business objects, readability and easy testing.

Specification Pattern

Specification pattern as per the definition from Wikipedia, is a particular software design pattern, wherebybusiness rules can be recombined by chaining the business rules together using boolean logic. To put it simply, business rules are segregated based on the Single responsibility principle (SRP) and chained or composed using boolean operands (AND, OR or NOT) to achieve the desired result. Each segregated business rule is called Specification.

Each specification inherits the abstract CompositeSpecification class which defines one abstractmethod called IsSatisfiedBy. This method is the engine of specification pattern. The responsibility of this method is to apply the business rule (specification) on the object in question and return a boolean result. The primary goal of the specification pattern is to select the subset of objects that satisfy a set of specifications chained together.


More infor:



Using SALV (object oriented model) has many advantages:

  • Simplified design: This Model uses a highly integrated object oriented design which provides the simplicity to programmers to develop the ALV.
  • Unified Object models: This model has only one main class which will get and set the parameters of entire layout.

All Classes has static method FACTORY which will get back the instance of the ALV. Like for the simple table dispaly we must call the method CL_SALV_TABLE=>FACTORY to get the instance of the ALV.

SALV class

SALV class


Simple case to display table:

DATA lo_salv TYPE REF TO cl_salv_table.
r_salv_table = lo_salv
t_table = lt_sflight ).
CATCH cx_salv_msg INTO lx_msg.

lo_salv->display( ).

Add standard PF Status

DATA: lo_functions TYPE REF TO cl_salv_functions_list.
lo_functions = co_salv->get_functions( ).
lo_functions->set_default( abap_true ).